Rules of Butter Making

A butter printer.
A butter printer.
  1. Keep good cows that will produce from 200 to 300 pounds or more of butter fat annually.
  2. Feed the cows liberally; follow methods commonly employed among feeders in the cow-testing associations.
  3. Keep the cows comfortable and clean when in the stable. Comfort is conducive to best production.
  4. Skim a rich heavy cream of not less than 25 per cent fat. The fat can be regulated by adjusting the cream screw.
  5. Keep an accurate, reliable thermometer at hand and use it intelligently.
  6. Keep the cream cool. It should be as near 50° F. as possible, if it is desirable to keep it sweet and check bacterial action.
  7. Cream should be ripened before churned; 65° to 70° F. favors the growth of the bacteria which produce desirable flavors in cream. The number of desirable bacteria can be increased by the use of ” starters.” Cream should not be ripened for too long a period. It soon develops objectionable flavors. Stir the cream frequently during ripening to insure uniformity. Strain the cream through wire-gauze strainer to break up or remove the curd particles.
  8. Churn at a temperature that will give a firm, flaky granule in the butter. This temperature varies slightly with the season, but ranges from 52° to 62° F.- The use of a thermometer and intelli- gent observation, as result of a few churnings, will enable the butter maker to determine the proper temperature at which to chum. Chum should be stopped when butter granules are large as corn kernels or peas. Time required for churning should be 25 to 30 minutes.
  9. Use clear, pure water for washing the butter. It should not be more than 3° colder or warmer than the buttermilk. Use amount of water equal to that of buttermilk. In barrel chum revolve 12 to 15 times in washing.
  10. Weigh the granular washed butter and salt at the rate of three-fourths ounce to 1 ounce per pound. Be sure the salt is well pulverized and sift it evenly over the granular butter before any of the moisture is worked out.
  11. Work the butter sufficiently to distribute salt without injuring the grain or texture. Determine working by (1) appearance, (2) texture, (3) grittiness.
  12. Put the butter up in clean, neat, attractive packages.
  13. Keep everything in and about the dairy clean and attractive,.
  14. Make earnest and conscientious efforts to obtain and retain profitable markets.

Source:  U.S.D.A, 1913

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